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UNIVERSITE CHARLES-DE-GAULLE LILLE III
LES PARASOMNIES ET
LES TROUBLES DU RYTHME
CIRCADIEN DU SOMMEIL
AN ENGLISH/FRENCH GLOSSARY
Mémoire présenté par Sandrine PIERRON
en vue de lobtention de la maîtrise danglais de spécialité
et de lexicographie bilingue
sous la direction de M. le professeur F. Antoine
Année universitaire 2000/01
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE DES MATIERES
Illustration p 1
Acknowledgements/Remerciements p 3
Introduction p 4
Table of Abbreviations p 43
Table des abréviations p 44
Pronunciation Table p 45
Table de Prononciation p 46
Glossary (Lexique) p 47
English/French Index p 220
Index français/anglais p 241
Appendixes/Annexes (for details, see relevant Table/liste détaillée dans la Table jointe) p 262
Bibliography/Bibliographie p 329
English Sources p 330
Sources françaises p 335
Words preceded by the sign * can be found in the glossary.
A. An approach to Sleep and its Disorders
1. A First Definition of Sleep
Defining *sleep is not an easy task, given that all its mechanisms are not fully known yet. Nevertheless, as sleep research has developed and experiments have multiplied throughout the twentieth century, we can now provide guidelines more accurately than our predecessors did. Therefore we can no longer content ourselves with the idea that *sleep is a passive state involving the suspension of mental and body functions. The use of methods for recording the various electrical activities of the brain and the body with *polysomnography proved that the brain is not inactive during *sleep - the occurrence of *dreams is systematic in a normal sleep period - and the body goes through various states of metabolic activity during *sleep.
Some features of human *sleep are indisputable. First, it is absolutely necessary to maintain human life. Total *sleep deprivation on rats leads to their *death in three weeks. As for humans, partial or total prolonged *sleep deprivation is assumed to shorten life expectancy. Moreover, some sleep *disorders are life-threatening, either directly (sleep *apnea) or indirectly (by inducing *sleepiness and causing accidents, mechanical catastrophes). Secondly, it is a periodic need: the urge to sleep alternates with variable times of *wakefulness. The discovery of a *circadian rhythm regulating the sleep-wake cycle discarded the approximate idea according to which the purpose of *sleep is to relieve *sleepiness.
At the same time, a good nights *sleep makes people feel *refreshed, whereas variable *sleep deprivation generates a series of measurable and subjective symptoms. Besides, the quality of *sleep depends on the quality of the previous *wakefulness states.
People are unable to remember *thoughts or events from the interval between falling asleep and awakening. *Sleep can even produce amnesia : *sleep talkers, *somnambulists, *bruxers, people suffering from *sleep terrors or *REM Sleep behavior disorder usually do not recall the pathological activities performed during *sleep when they awake. Nevertheless, sleep-related amnesia is not a sign of mental inactivity.
It is also characterized by what E. Govindan et Dr J. T. Burns call "reduction in awareness of and interaction with the environment". Dependingupon sleep depth, the sleeper is more or less insensitive to his/her environment. (noise, touch, etc).
Eventually, movements in *sleep are involuntary, because *sleep is also a modified state of consciousness.
2. Theories on the Function of Sleep
The function of *sleep has not yet been clearly established by researchers. Nevertheless various theories have been based on the findings drawn by the multiplication of sleep experiments.
*Sleep has always intrigued artists and philosophers. Until the 1960s theories on *sleep were founded on the principle that it was a passive state. For example, Aristotle considered *sleep as a kind of inertia due to excessive *wakefulness. The wakeful state was the core of life, whereas nowadays, most of the books devoted on the subject remind you that humans spend at least one third of their lives sleeping.
The view supported by the Bible that the soul left the body during *sleep was common until the nineteenth century and suggested a death-like process. A prayer still says: "Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray the Lord my soul to keep". On the whole, *sleep was long regarded as an analogue of *death during which mental function ceases.
The advent of sleep studies, above all the recording of the electrical activity produced by the brain led scientists to consider *sleep as an active process.
For example, the *restorative theory, a classical view, postulates that it serves to reverse and/or to restore neuronal, chemical and/or physical processes that are progressively degraded during the wakeful state. Assumptions that NREM sleep is a state of "bodily repair" and REM sleep a "brain repair" have been made, on the basis that cerebral protein- and growth hormone secretion were at peak, and that tissues were repaired. *Sleep would then trigger a double *restorative system . Protein synthesis of the whole body has later been found to decrease rather than increase during the *night due to prolonged fasting (contrary to subjects being fed via intragastric tubes round the clock).
The energy conservation theory focuses on the reduced metabolic state of the human body during NREM sleep to conclude that *sleep is crucial to balance the energy spent in *alertness. It relies on the sleep *behaviors and-*patterns in animals such as in hibernation, for example. Metabolism reduction, the decrease in body temperature, blood *pressure, respiration rate, etc. during NREM sleep support this view. Besides, it has been demonstrated that *sleep deprivation or intense physical activity led to longer sleep periods, especially higher quantities of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep (about these stages of *sleep, see A Normal Sleep Period.). *Sleep would then allow the body to preserve the energy it needs.
Extensive intellectual activity during the day leads to long NREM time, so that it may be decisive for the memorization of logical rational facts of the left part of the brain. On the contrary, emotional sensations would be maintained in REM sleep.
It has also been suggested that the reactivation of certain body functions during REM stage enabled humans or animals to adapt to difficult and stressful situations. REM sleep is supposed to have a critical role in the learning process so as to help humans to memorise and classify information recorded in *wakefulness. H. Jackson postulated that *sleep cleared unimportant information from the memory and consolidated important experiences. This view has remarkably been adopted and developed by M. Jouvet as the programming-reprogramming hypothesis.
*Dreams in particular have been the subject of many speculations. A half-century before *dreams were entroencephalographically associated with a specific stage of *sleep, Freuds Interpretation of Dreams revealed his psychoanalytical approach to *dreams in 1900. Freud believed that *dreams were disguised representations of unconscious desires which were repressed because they were unacceptable to the *dreamer. The physical state of a sleeper could influence his/her *dreams (for example, sufferers of a cardiopulmonary disease *dreamt of suffocation ). Nowadays Freuds theory is considered as a major step in psychoanalytical history, but has little relevance for the clinical reality of REM sleep which has been discovered through experiments. Research proved that *dreams can indeed reflect the symptoms of an organic illness, but also influence its course and underline psychological disorders. On the whole, psychoanalysts thought *dreams were a necessary "harmless discharge of strong emotions during *sleep which would otherwise intrude into waking *behavior" (Sleep Syllabus).
The association of *dreams with a specific stage of *sleep produced great excitement in the psychiatric community: sleep studies would enable them to sound the mysteries of the mind. It has been demonstrated that *dreams are vital to humans: those who do not *dream are likely to die earlier. Astonishingly, REM suppression in depressed patients was shown to have a transitory *antidepressant effect.
Moreover, the high quantity of REM sleep during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence supports the view that it plays a major part in the human development, especially in the maturation of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Movements during REM sleep in newborn kittens were found to be more elaborated than during the wakeful state, which may mean that motor *behavior is programmed during *sleep and that newborns use REM sleep as a "training session" for the actions they perform in *alertness. On the other hand, suppression of REMsleep in newborn kittens due to absorption of *antidepressants disrupted their learning faculties and their emotional development. REM sleep would then reprogram each of us so as to make us all different from each other and keep us performing *behaviors typical of our species.
Although it has been rarely investigated, *sleep is known to influence the immune system. However it has not been found to trigger illness. In 1925, researchers in the USA remarked that the number of circulating white blood cells, the role of which is to challenge infection, increased gradually in a majority of people totally *sleep-deprived for three days. Other studies confirmed such increase from the second *night of *sleep deprivation.
It is likely that *sleep is vital to mental, psychological, emotional and physical *restoration altogether. *Sleep deprivation studies show alteration of mental performance, impairment of memory, irritability and *excessive somnolence, whereas restored *sleep sees rises in the quantity of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.
3. A Normal Sleep Period
A basic study of sleep architecture, i. e. the amount and distribution of sleep stages during a sleep period, relies on the measures provided by the *electroencephalogram (*EEG) and is read according to the international codification established by Rechtschaffen and Kales. The *EEG records the electrical activity produced by the brain during *sleep and represented in the form of waves on a diagram. The waves differ according to their amplitude (how high they are) and their frequency (how many times their appear on the chart per seconds or hertz). Roughly speaking, sleep specialists distinguish NREM (or Non REM sleep: Non Rapid Eye movement) sleep from REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep or paradoxical sleep. TheNREM period is made up of stages 1 to 4 which are successively deeper sleep stages (see appendix 12).
Stage 1 is a transition from *wakefulness to *sleep. It is characterized by small and fast waves on the *EEG. This stage is always the one starting the normal sleep period of an adult. It occupies 5% to 10% of total sleep time.
Stage 2 is characterized by small and fast waves interrupted at times by bursts of intense activity called spindles and K complexes. It is the real sleep onset: the neural sleep mechanisms start to be activated. This stage occupies about half of the time spent asleep. The sleeper may still be sensitive to external stimuli (noise, light ).
Stage 3 and 4, which are often known collectively as slow-wave sleep: SWS, are characterized by slow waves of great amplitude. Slow Wave Sleep is deep *sleep: if a subject is awakened during this period,he may feel confused or disoriented. That also means of course that he is much less responsive to external stimuli. This stage accounts for about 20% of total sleep time. As *sleep deepens, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood *pressure, core body temperature decline. Muscles are relaxed, though changes in postures periodically occur. Gastrointestinal activity increases.
The REM period is very different from the NREM one because, on the one hand, it is characterized by fast and small waves resembling those typical of the waking state and stage 1 on the *EEG. On the other hand, a significant loss of muscle tone is observed, which prevents the sleeper to *act out his *dreams (except in pathological disorders such as *REM behavior disorder) while increasesin heart and respiration rates, core body temperature, blood *pressure are measured, as well as the presence of muscles twitches and in males, *penile *erections. At the same time, it is also characterized by rapid eye movements recorded on an *electrooculogram which give REM sleep its name. Most *dreams occur during this state, so that when a sleeper is awakened at the end of this stage, he/she will remember a *dream quite vividly. The French researcher Michel Jouvet coined the term "sommeil paradoxal" (paradoxical sleep) because the *EEG shows an electrical activity similar to that of *wakefulness, but at this time the sleeper is extremely difficult to awaken.
During REM sleep, the brain consumes as much glucose and oxygen as during *wakefulness. Consequently *dream length is also determined by available reserves of energy. Other external factors modify the quality of *sleep, such as external temperature.
It is estimated that about 90% of our *dreams are made during this stage. *Dream studies revealed that humans usually *dream in color, in real time, sometimes about recent events or present situations (sensations associated with a disease, a place the *dreamer is in ).
Typically, four to six periods of REM sleep and NREM sleep alternate during a nights*sleep. The *night of a healthy adult invariably starts with stage 1 and goes through successively deeper stages including REM sleep. This represents a first sleep cycle which is estimated to last from 80 mn to 120 mn. Then other cycles follow, but the intervals between successive REM periods are progressively reduced, while REM periods last longer. SWS is usually dominant in the first half of a sleep episode, whereas REM sleep prevails during the remaining time.
After prolonged *wakefulness, the amount of REM sleep and SWS is higher (*rebound sleep). The length of the average sleep period in healthy adults varies between seven and nine hours. Some people are called "short sleepers" when they need less than six hours to function at peak, others "long sleepers" when they need nine to eleven hours. Studies tend to prove that the difference from average sleepers concerns the amount of stages 1, 2 and the REM stage. Following experiments in mice and humans (identical twins), it was postulated that the nature of our *sleep, i. e. its length, its periodicity, the number of eye movements during REM sleep and our recuperative capacities, is inherited from our ancestors before being modulated by living conditions and education raising. Nevertheless the hypothesis of *sleep being determined by a sole gene is utopian since it ignores the complexity of sleep mechanims.
DEF Voir : sleep-related abnormal swallowing syndrome.
actigraph n actimètre n m (au poignet)
evaluation equipment 25
DEF Appareil muni dune puce électronique, qui a la forme dune montre, se porte au poignet de la main non dominante et qui enregistre le nombre et lintensité des mouvements corporels dun sujet pendant son sommeil.
QUOT/CIT Wrist actigraphs transform the wrist movements into signals that are digitized and stored in memory for days, weeks, or months.
Les actimètres au poignet transforment les mouvements du poignet en signaux qui sont numérisés and mémorisés pendant des jours, des semaines, ou des années.
COM La puce électronique enregistre généralement des informations pendant deux semaines. Ces informations sont ensuite lues et traitées sur ordinateur.
SEE/VOIR actigraphic, actigraphy, actogram.
(illustration + nom de la source)
actigraphic adj actimétrique adj
evaluation technique actigraphique adj
2 31 ; 2
DEF Qui est caractéristique de l*actimétrie.
QUOT/CIT The primary *EDS measure was *Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and actigraphic measures.
On a utilisé principalement l*échelle de somnolence dEpworth (*ESS) et les enregistrements actimétriques pour évaluer la *SEP.
COM Langlais préfère généralement placer le nom actigraphy en position dadjectif.
SEE/VOIR actigraph, actigraphy, actogram.
actigraphy n actimétrie n f (au/de poignet)
evaluation technique actigraphie n f
2 5 12 25 ; 1 ; 2 31 39
DEF Technique denregistrement du nombre et de lintensité des mouvements corporels dun sujet pendant son sommeil à laide dun *actimètre.
QUOT/CIT The [sic] actigraphy in the evaluation of sleep disorders is considered as a very useful tool in the longitudinal assessment of sleep-wake activity.
Pour lévaluation des troubles du sommeil, lactimétrie au poignet est considérée comme un outil très utile à lestimation longitudinale du rythme veille-sommeil.
SEE/VOIR actigraph, actigraphic, actogram.
actimeter n actimètre n m (au poignet)
evaluation equipment 25
DEF synonyme de : actigraph.
QUOT/CIT In addition to the size comparison with a watch, actimeters are generally worn on the wrist.
Non seulement la taille dun actimètre est comparable à celle dune montre, mais il se porte généralement au poignet.
SEE/VOIR actigraphic,. actigraphy, actogram.
t p : suggested translation.
rajout p : added suggestion.
The most frequent translations are presented first.
abnormal see : sleep-related abnormal swallowing syndrome
actigraph actimètre (au poignet)
actigraphic actimétrique, actigraphique
actigraphy actimétrie (au/de poignet), actigraphie
actimeter actimètre (au poignet)
actinotherapy photothérapie, traitement par la lumière vive, actinothérapie, exposition à la lumière intense
act out (a dream) agir (un rêve)
adeno-tonsillectomy adéno-amygdalectomie, amygdalectomie associée à une adénoïdectomie
advance see : phase advance (1).
advanced sleep-phase pattern/ syndrome davance de phase du sommeil, syndrome avance de phase des horaires de sommeil
airway, airways (nasal) continuous positive airway pressure, nasal bilevel (airway) pressure, (upper) airway
alert éveillé, e
alertness veille, vigilance
AMT maîtrise de lanxiété généralisée
anoxia hypoxie, hypoxémie, anoxie
anoxic hypoxique, hypoxémique
anti(-)convulsant (1) anticonvulsivant, anti-épileptique
anti(-)convulsant (2) anticonvulsivant, e
INDEX FRANÇAIS /ANGLAIS
t p : traduction proposée.
rajout p : rajout proposé.
Les traductions les plus courantes sont en tête.
actimètre (au poignet) actigraph, actimeter
actimétrie (au/de poignet) actigraphy
actinothérapie actinotherapy, (bright) light exposure, (bright) light therapy, (bright) light treatment, phototherapy
administrer des sédatifs à sedate
(quelquun) (t p)
aériennes voir : voies aériennes (supérieures)
agenda de nuit sleep log, sleep diary, sleep chart
agenda de sommeil
agir (un rêve) act out (a dream)
alouette early bird (1, 2), early phaser (1, 2),
(morning) lark (1, 2), morning person (1, 2), morning type (1, 2)
amygdalectomie associée à une adeno-tonsillectomy
anérection impaired sleep-related penile erection
angoisse crise dangoisse onirique
anoxie hypoxia, hypoxemia, hypoxaemia, anoxia
TABLE OF APPENDIXES
TABLE DES ANNEXES
2. Classification internationale des troubles du sommeil (version abrégée).
3. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV) Sleep Disorders Codes.
4. Catégories et codes du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux (DSM IV).
5. EEG Tracings/Tracés EEG.
6. Polysomnographic Recording/Enregistrement polysomnographique.
7. Photos of French Sleep Laboratories/Photos de laboratoires du sommeil français.
8. Advertisement for an Electrode System/Publicité pour un dispositif délectrodes.
9. Side Representation of the Human Brain/Vue latérale du cerveau humain.
10. The Respiratory System/Le système respiratoire.
12. The Normal Sleep Pattern of a Young Adult/Déroulement dune nuit de sommeil normale chez un jeune adulte.
13. Schedule of Nighttime Parasomnias/Horaires des manifestations apparaissant au cours du sommeil.
14. Alternations of Sleep and Wakefulness in Babies/Alternances veille/sommeil chez les bébés.
15. Evolution of the first Sleep Cycle according to Age/Evolution du premier cycle de sommeil en fonction de lâge.
16. Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome/Syndrome hypernycthéméral.
17. Plethysmographic Data/Données pléthysmographiques.
18. Sleep Questionnaires and Scales/Echelles et questionnaires sur le sommeil :
19a. Sleep Diary.
19b. Calendrier de sommeil.
20a. Sleep Hygiene Tips.
20b. Hygiène du sommeil.
21a. Stimulus Control Instructions.
21b. Traitement par contrôle du stimulus.
22. Injonction paradoxale.
23. Conceptual Tree/Arbre conceptuel.
DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS
ATKINS, B T., A DUVAL, R C MILNE et al. Le Robert et Collins-Dictionnaire français/anglais, anglais/français Senior quatrième édition. Paris : Dictionnaires Le Robert, 1996.
OFFICIAL MANUALS OF PSYCHIATRIC
AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TERMS
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV). Washington, D C : American Psychiatric Association, 1994, xxvii+886 p.
COOPER, R (Ed.). Sleep. London : Chapman and Hall Medical, 1994, 702 p.
BENNETT L S, J R STRADLING and R J O. DAVIES. "A Behavioural Test to Assess Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea". Journal of Sleep Research (Volume 6, 1997) : 142-5.
(Journal of Sleep2)
Bethany College web site, USA :
JAFFRE, M-O. Actigraphy for the Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep - Mémoire de DESS TBH. Compiègne : Université de Compiègne, 1998, n p.
DICTIONNAIRES ET ENCYCLOPEDIES
AUTEUR X. Encyclopaedia Universalis-Corpus 21 - Sommeil-rêve-éveil (cycle). Paris : Encyclopaedia Universalis, 1992.
LIVRES ET MANUELS
BILLIARD, M. Le sommeil normal et pathologique - Troubles du sommeil et de léveil, deuxième édition. Paris : Masson, 1998, xviii+998 p.
ARTICLES DE JOURNAUX, REVUES
LABOUZE, E. "Décalage horaire : la médecine au secours des voyageurs ?. " La Recherche 201 (juillet-août 1988) : 972-3.
Site du laboratoire pharmaceutique Antadir :
REBAI, M. La régulation des niveaux de vigilance. Rouen : cours donné à la faculté de psychologie aux élèves de licence de psychologie, 1999, 45 p. manuscrites.