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Les extraits suivants du mémoire de maîtrise de Sandrine PIERRON ne doivent pas être copiés dans un autre travail universitaire ou une publication sans que le nom de leur auteur ne soit explicitement cité.

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Mémoire présenté par Sandrine PIERRON

en vue de l’obtention de la maîtrise d’anglais de spécialité

et de lexicographie bilingue

sous la direction de M. le professeur F. Antoine

Année universitaire 2000/01





Illustration p 1

Acknowledgements/Remerciements p 3

Introduction p 4

  1. An Approach to Sleep and its disorders (Introduction sur le sommeil et ses troubles) p 5
  1. A First Definition of Sleep (Première définition du sommeil)p 5
  2. Theories on the Function of Sleep (Théories sur la fonction du sommeil)p 6
  3. A Normal Sleep Period (Déroulement d’une période normale de sommeil)p 9
  4. Sleep Evolution in a Human Life (Evolution du sommeil au cours d’une vie humaine) p 12
  5. Biological Rhythms (Rythmes biologiques)p 17
  6. Neural Mechanisms (Neurobiologie)p 20
  7. Brief Chronology of Sleep Research (Résumé chronologique de la recherche sur le sommeil)p 25
  8. Classifications of Sleep Disorders (Les classifications des troubles du sommeil) p 27
  1. The Features of this Glossary (Caractéristiques du lexique)p 31
  1. Collecting a Glossary on Sleep Disorders (Réalisation d’un lexique des troubles du sommeil)p 31
  2. Brief remarks on the Contents of the Glossary (Brèves remarques sur le contenu du glossaire)p 34
  3. How to Use the Glossary (Mode d’emploi du lexique)p 37

Table of Abbreviations p 43

Table des abréviations p 44

Pronunciation Table p 45

Table de Prononciation p 46

Glossary (Lexique) p 47

English/French Index p 220

Index français/anglais p 241

Appendixes/Annexes (for details, see relevant Table/liste détaillée dans la Table jointe) p 262


Bibliography/Bibliographie p 329

English Sources p 330

Sources françaises p 335



Words preceded by the sign * can be found in the glossary.

A. An approach to Sleep and its Disorders

1. A First Definition of Sleep

Defining *sleep is not an easy task, given that all its mechanisms are not fully known yet. Nevertheless, as sleep research has developed and experiments have multiplied throughout the twentieth century, we can now provide guidelines more accurately than our predecessors did. Therefore we can no longer content ourselves with the idea that *sleep is a passive state involving the suspension of mental and body functions. The use of methods for recording the various electrical activities of the brain and the body with *polysomnography proved that the brain is not inactive during *sleep - the occurrence of *dreams is systematic in a normal sleep period - and the body goes through various states of metabolic activity during *sleep.

Some features of human *sleep are indisputable. First, it is absolutely necessary to maintain human life. Total *sleep deprivation on rats leads to their *death in three weeks. As for humans, partial or total prolonged *sleep deprivation is assumed to shorten life expectancy. Moreover, some sleep *disorders are life-threatening, either directly (sleep *apnea) or indirectly (by inducing *sleepiness and causing accidents, mechanical catastrophes). Secondly, it is a periodic need: the urge to sleep alternates with variable times of *wakefulness. The discovery of a *circadian rhythm regulating the sleep-wake cycle discarded the approximate idea according to which the purpose of *sleep is to relieve *sleepiness.

At the same time, a good night’s *sleep makes people feel *refreshed, whereas variable *sleep deprivation generates a series of measurable and subjective symptoms. Besides, the quality of *sleep depends on the quality of the previous *wakefulness states.

People are unable to remember *thoughts or events from the interval between falling asleep and awakening. *Sleep can even produce amnesia : *sleep talkers, *somnambulists, *bruxers, people suffering from *sleep terrors or *REM Sleep behavior disorder usually do not recall the pathological activities performed during *sleep when they awake. Nevertheless, sleep-related amnesia is not a sign of mental inactivity.

It is also characterized by what E. Govindan et Dr J. T. Burns call "reduction in awareness of and interaction with the environment". Dependingupon sleep depth, the sleeper is more or less insensitive to his/her environment. (noise, touch, etc).

Eventually, movements in *sleep are involuntary, because *sleep is also a modified state of consciousness.

2. Theories on the Function of Sleep

The function of *sleep has not yet been clearly established by researchers. Nevertheless various theories have been based on the findings drawn by the multiplication of sleep experiments.

*Sleep has always intrigued artists and philosophers. Until the 1960’s theories on *sleep were founded on the principle that it was a passive state. For example, Aristotle considered *sleep as a kind of inertia due to excessive *wakefulness. The wakeful state was the core of life, whereas nowadays, most of the books devoted on the subject remind you that humans spend at least one third of their lives sleeping.

The view supported by the Bible that the soul left the body during *sleep was common until the nineteenth century and suggested a death-like process. A prayer still says: "Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray the Lord my soul to keep". On the whole, *sleep was long regarded as an analogue of *death during which mental function ceases.

The advent of sleep studies, above all the recording of the electrical activity produced by the brain led scientists to consider *sleep as an active process.

For example, the *restorative theory, a classical view, postulates that it serves to reverse and/or to restore neuronal, chemical and/or physical processes that are progressively degraded during the wakeful state. Assumptions that NREM sleep is a state of "bodily repair" and REM sleep a "brain repair" have been made, on the basis that cerebral protein- and growth hormone secretion were at peak, and that tissues were repaired. *Sleep would then trigger a double *restorative system . Protein synthesis of the whole body has later been found to decrease rather than increase during the *night due to prolonged fasting (contrary to subjects being fed via intragastric tubes round the clock).

The energy conservation theory focuses on the reduced metabolic state of the human body during NREM sleep to conclude that *sleep is crucial to balance the energy spent in *alertness. It relies on the sleep *behaviors and-*patterns in animals such as in hibernation, for example. Metabolism reduction, the decrease in body temperature, blood *pressure, respiration rate, etc. during NREM sleep support this view. Besides, it has been demonstrated that *sleep deprivation or intense physical activity led to longer sleep periods, especially higher quantities of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep (about these stages of *sleep, see A Normal Sleep Period.). *Sleep would then allow the body to preserve the energy it needs.

Extensive intellectual activity during the day leads to long NREM time, so that it may be decisive for the memorization of logical rational facts of the left part of the brain. On the contrary, emotional sensations would be maintained in REM sleep.

It has also been suggested that the reactivation of certain body functions during REM stage enabled humans or animals to adapt to difficult and stressful situations. REM sleep is supposed to have a critical role in the learning process so as to help humans to memorise and classify information recorded in *wakefulness. H. Jackson postulated that *sleep cleared unimportant information from the memory and consolidated important experiences. This view has remarkably been adopted and developed by M. Jouvet as the programming-reprogramming hypothesis.

*Dreams in particular have been the subject of many speculations. A half-century before *dreams were entroencephalographically associated with a specific stage of *sleep, Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams revealed his psychoanalytical approach to *dreams in 1900. Freud believed that *dreams were disguised representations of unconscious desires which were repressed because they were unacceptable to the *dreamer. The physical state of a sleeper could influence his/her *dreams (for example, sufferers of a cardiopulmonary disease *dreamt of suffocation…). Nowadays Freud’s theory is considered as a major step in psychoanalytical history, but has little relevance for the clinical reality of REM sleep which has been discovered through experiments. Research proved that *dreams can indeed reflect the symptoms of an organic illness, but also influence its course and underline psychological disorders. On the whole, psychoanalysts thought *dreams were a necessary "harmless discharge of strong emotions during *sleep which would otherwise intrude into waking *behavior" (Sleep Syllabus).

The association of *dreams with a specific stage of *sleep produced great excitement in the psychiatric community: sleep studies would enable them to sound the mysteries of the mind. It has been demonstrated that *dreams are vital to humans: those who do not *dream are likely to die earlier. Astonishingly, REM suppression in depressed patients was shown to have a transitory *antidepressant effect.

Moreover, the high quantity of REM sleep during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence supports the view that it plays a major part in the human development, especially in the maturation of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Movements during REM sleep in newborn kittens were found to be more elaborated than during the wakeful state, which may mean that motor *behavior is programmed during *sleep and that newborns use REM sleep as a "training session" for the actions they perform in *alertness. On the other hand, suppression of REMsleep in newborn kittens due to absorption of *antidepressants disrupted their learning faculties and their emotional development. REM sleep would then reprogram each of us so as to make us all different from each other and keep us performing *behaviors typical of our species.

Although it has been rarely investigated, *sleep is known to influence the immune system. However it has not been found to trigger illness. In 1925, researchers in the USA remarked that the number of circulating white blood cells, the role of which is to challenge infection, increased gradually in a majority of people totally *sleep-deprived for three days. Other studies confirmed such increase from the second *night of *sleep deprivation.

It is likely that *sleep is vital to mental, psychological, emotional and physical *restoration altogether. *Sleep deprivation studies show alteration of mental performance, impairment of memory, irritability and *excessive somnolence, whereas restored *sleep sees rises in the quantity of slow-wave sleep and REM sleep.

3. A Normal Sleep Period

A basic study of sleep architecture, i. e. the amount and distribution of sleep stages during a sleep period, relies on the measures provided by the *electroencephalogram (*EEG) and is read according to the international codification established by Rechtschaffen and Kales. The *EEG records the electrical activity produced by the brain during *sleep and represented in the form of waves on a diagram. The waves differ according to their amplitude (how high they are) and their frequency (how many times their appear on the chart per seconds or hertz). Roughly speaking, sleep specialists distinguish NREM (or Non REM sleep: Non Rapid Eye movement) sleep from REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep or paradoxical sleep. TheNREM period is made up of stages 1 to 4 which are successively deeper sleep stages (see appendix 12).

Stage 1 is a transition from *wakefulness to *sleep. It is characterized by small and fast waves on the *EEG. This stage is always the one starting the normal sleep period of an adult. It occupies 5% to 10% of total sleep time.

Stage 2 is characterized by small and fast waves interrupted at times by bursts of intense activity called spindles and K complexes. It is the real sleep onset: the neural sleep mechanisms start to be activated. This stage occupies about half of the time spent asleep. The sleeper may still be sensitive to external stimuli (noise, light…).

Stage 3 and 4, which are often known collectively as slow-wave sleep: SWS, are characterized by slow waves of great amplitude. Slow Wave Sleep is deep *sleep: if a subject is awakened during this period,he may feel confused or disoriented. That also means of course that he is much less responsive to external stimuli. This stage accounts for about 20% of total sleep time. As *sleep deepens, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood *pressure, core body temperature decline. Muscles are relaxed, though changes in postures periodically occur. Gastrointestinal activity increases.

The REM period is very different from the NREM one because, on the one hand, it is characterized by fast and small waves resembling those typical of the waking state and stage 1 on the *EEG. On the other hand, a significant loss of muscle tone is observed, which prevents the sleeper to *act out his *dreams (except in pathological disorders such as *REM behavior disorder) while increasesin heart and respiration rates, core body temperature, blood *pressure are measured, as well as the presence of muscles twitches and in males, *penile *erections. At the same time, it is also characterized by rapid eye movements recorded on an *electrooculogram which give REM sleep its name. Most *dreams occur during this state, so that when a sleeper is awakened at the end of this stage, he/she will remember a *dream quite vividly. The French researcher Michel Jouvet coined the term "sommeil paradoxal" (paradoxical sleep) because the *EEG shows an electrical activity similar to that of *wakefulness, but at this time the sleeper is extremely difficult to awaken.

During REM sleep, the brain consumes as much glucose and oxygen as during *wakefulness. Consequently *dream length is also determined by available reserves of energy. Other external factors modify the quality of *sleep, such as external temperature.

It is estimated that about 90% of our *dreams are made during this stage. *Dream studies revealed that humans usually *dream in color, in real time, sometimes about recent events or present situations (sensations associated with a disease, a place the *dreamer is in …).

Typically, four to six periods of REM sleep and NREM sleep alternate during a night’s*sleep. The *night of a healthy adult invariably starts with stage 1 and goes through successively deeper stages including REM sleep. This represents a first sleep cycle which is estimated to last from 80 mn to 120 mn. Then other cycles follow, but the intervals between successive REM periods are progressively reduced, while REM periods last longer. SWS is usually dominant in the first half of a sleep episode, whereas REM sleep prevails during the remaining time.

After prolonged *wakefulness, the amount of REM sleep and SWS is higher (*rebound sleep). The length of the average sleep period in healthy adults varies between seven and nine hours. Some people are called "short sleepers" when they need less than six hours to function at peak, others "long sleepers" when they need nine to eleven hours. Studies tend to prove that the difference from average sleepers concerns the amount of stages 1, 2 and the REM stage. Following experiments in mice and humans (identical twins), it was postulated that the nature of our *sleep, i. e. its length, its periodicity, the number of eye movements during REM sleep and our recuperative capacities, is inherited from our ancestors before being modulated by living conditions and education raising. Nevertheless the hypothesis of *sleep being determined by a sole gene is utopian since it ignores the complexity of sleep mechanims.


abnormal adj


DEF Voir : sleep-related abnormal swallowing syndrome.




actigraph n actimètre n m (au poignet)

evaluation equipment 25’


DEF Appareil muni d’une puce électronique, qui a la forme d’une montre, se porte au poignet de la main non dominante et qui enregistre le nombre et l’intensité des mouvements corporels d’un sujet pendant son sommeil.


QUOT/CIT Wrist actigraphs transform the wrist movements into signals that are digitized and stored in memory for days, weeks, or months.

Understanding Sleep

Les actimètres au poignet transforment les mouvements du poignet en signaux qui sont numérisés and mémorisés pendant des jours, des semaines, ou des années.


COM La puce électronique enregistre généralement des informations pendant deux semaines. Ces informations sont ensuite lues et traitées sur ordinateur.

SYN actimeter.

SEE/VOIR actigraphic, actigraphy, actogram.



(illustration + nom de la source)




actigraphic adj actimétrique adj

evaluation technique actigraphique adj

2’ 31’ ; 2’


DEF Qui est caractéristique de l’*actimétrie.


QUOT/CIT The primary *EDS measure was *Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and actigraphic measures.

bisleep C526.L

On a utilisé principalement l’*échelle de somnolence d’Epworth (*ESS) et les enregistrements actimétriques pour évaluer la *SEP.


COM L’anglais préfère généralement placer le nom actigraphy en position d’adjectif.

SEE/VOIR actigraph, actigraphy, actogram.




actigraphy n actimétrie n f (au/de poignet)

evaluation technique actigraphie n f

2’ 5’ 12’ 25’ ; 1’ ; 2’ 31’ 39


DEF Technique d’enregistrement du nombre et de l’intensité des mouvements corporels d’un sujet pendant son sommeil à l’aide d’un *actimètre.


QUOT/CIT The [sic] actigraphy in the evaluation of sleep disorders is considered as a very useful tool in the longitudinal assessment of sleep-wake activity.

MO Jaffré

Pour l’évaluation des troubles du sommeil, l’actimétrie au poignet est considérée comme un outil très utile à l’estimation longitudinale du rythme veille-sommeil.


SEE/VOIR actigraph, actigraphic, actogram.




actimeter n actimètre n m (au poignet)

evaluation equipment 25’


DEF synonyme de : actigraph.


QUOT/CIT In addition to the size comparison with a watch, actimeters are generally worn on the wrist.

MO Jaffré

Non seulement la taille d’un actimètre est comparable à celle d’une montre, mais il se porte généralement au poignet.


SEE/VOIR actigraphic,. actigraphy, actogram.





t p : suggested translation.

rajout p : added suggestion.

The most frequent translations are presented first.



abnormal see : sleep-related abnormal swallowing syndrome

actigraph actimètre (au poignet)

actigraphic actimétrique, actigraphique

actigraphy actimétrie (au/de poignet), actigraphie

actimeter actimètre (au poignet)

actinotherapy photothérapie, traitement par la lumière vive, actinothérapie, exposition à la lumière intense

actogram actogramme

act out (a dream) agir (un rêve)

adenoidectomy adénoïdectomie

adeno-tonsillectomy adéno-amygdalectomie, amygdalectomie associée à une adénoïdectomie

advance see : phase advance (1).

advanced sleep-phase pattern/ syndrome d’avance de phase du sommeil, syndrome avance de phase des horaires de sommeil


airway, airways (nasal) continuous positive airway pressure, nasal bilevel (airway) pressure, (upper) airway

alert éveillé, e

alertness veille, vigilance

AMT maîtrise de l’anxiété généralisée

anoxia hypoxie, hypoxémie, anoxie

anoxic hypoxique, hypoxémique

anti(-)convulsant (1) anticonvulsivant, anti-épileptique

anti(-)convulsant (2) anticonvulsivant, e

anticonvulsive anti-épileptique



t p : traduction proposée.

rajout p : rajout proposé.

Les traductions les plus courantes sont en tête.



actigraphie actigraphy

actigraphique actigraphic

actimètre (au poignet) actigraph, actimeter

actimétrie (au/de poignet) actigraphy

actimétrique actigraphic

actinothérapie actinotherapy, (bright) light exposure, (bright) light therapy, (bright) light treatment, phototherapy

actogramme actogram

adéno-amygdalectomie adeno-tonsillectomy

adénoïdectomie adenoidectomy

administrer des sédatifs à sedate

(quelqu’un) (t p)

aériennes voir : voies aériennes (supérieures)

agenda de nuit sleep log, sleep diary, sleep chart

agenda de sommeil

agir (un rêve) act out (a dream)


alouette early bird (1, 2), early phaser (1, 2),

(morning) lark (1, 2), morning person (1, 2), morning type (1, 2)

amygdalectomie tonsillectomy

amygdalectomie associée à une adeno-tonsillectomy


anérection impaired sleep-related penile erection

angoisse crise d’angoisse onirique

anoxie hypoxia, hypoxemia, hypoxaemia, anoxia







  1. International Classification of Sleep Disorders (abridged version).

2. Classification internationale des troubles du sommeil (version abrégée).

3. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV) Sleep Disorders Codes.

4. Catégories et codes du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux (DSM IV).

5. EEG Tracings/Tracés EEG.

6. Polysomnographic Recording/Enregistrement polysomnographique.

7. Photos of French Sleep Laboratories/Photos de laboratoires du sommeil français.

8. Advertisement for an Electrode System/Publicité pour un dispositif d’électrodes.

9. Side Representation of the Human Brain/Vue latérale du cerveau humain.

10. The Respiratory System/Le système respiratoire.


12. The Normal Sleep Pattern of a Young Adult/Déroulement d’une nuit de sommeil normale chez un jeune adulte.

13. Schedule of Nighttime Parasomnias/Horaires des manifestations apparaissant au cours du sommeil.

14. Alternations of Sleep and Wakefulness in Babies/Alternances veille/sommeil chez les bébés.

15. Evolution of the first Sleep Cycle according to Age/Evolution du premier cycle de sommeil en fonction de l’âge.

16. Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome/Syndrome hypernycthéméral.

17. Plethysmographic Data/Données pléthysmographiques.

18. Sleep Questionnaires and Scales/Echelles et questionnaires sur le sommeil :

    1. Epworth Sleepiness Scale.
    2. Echelle de somnolence d’Epworth.
    3. Stanford Sleepiness Scale.
    4. Echelle de somnolence de Stanford.
    5. Leeds Sleep Evaluation questionnaire.
    6. Questionnaire d’évaluation du sommeil de Leeds.
    7. Pittsburgh Sleep quality Index.
    8. Index de qualité du sommeil de Pittsburgh.
    9. Questionnaire sur le sommeil du Saint Mary’s Hospital.
    10. Test de matinalité/vespéralité de Horne et Ostberg.
    11. Papworth Hospital Sleep Questionnaire.
    12. Beck (version abrégée).
    13. Echelle de dépression de Hamilton.
    14. Echelle d’évaluation de la dépression de Montgomery et Asberg.

19a. Sleep Diary.

19b. Calendrier de sommeil.

20a. Sleep Hygiene Tips.

20b. Hygiène du sommeil.

21a. Stimulus Control Instructions.

21b. Traitement par contrôle du stimulus.

22. Injonction paradoxale.

23. Conceptual Tree/Arbre conceptuel.








ATKINS, B T., A DUVAL, R C MILNE et al. Le Robert et Collins-Dictionnaire français/anglais, anglais/français Senior quatrième édition. Paris : Dictionnaires Le Robert, 1996.







American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV). Washington, D C : American Psychiatric Association, 1994, xxvii+886 p.






COOPER, R (Ed.). Sleep. London : Chapman and Hall Medical, 1994, 702 p.

(Sleep UK)





BENNETT L S, J R STRADLING and R J O. DAVIES. "A Behavioural Test to Assess Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea". Journal of Sleep Research (Volume 6, 1997) : 142-5.

(Journal of Sleep2)





Bethany College web site, USA :







Essay :

JAFFRE, M-O. Actigraphy for the Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep - Mémoire de DESS TBH. Compiègne : Université de Compiègne, 1998, n p.

(M-O Jaffré)








AUTEUR X. Encyclopaedia Universalis-Corpus 21 - Sommeil-rêve-éveil (cycle). Paris : Encyclopaedia Universalis, 1992.






BILLIARD, M. Le sommeil normal et pathologique - Troubles du sommeil et de l’éveil, deuxième édition. Paris : Masson, 1998, xviii+998 p.






LABOUZE, E. "Décalage horaire : la médecine au secours des voyageurs ?. " La Recherche 201 (juillet-août 1988) : 972-3.






Site du laboratoire pharmaceutique Antadir :







REBAI, M. La régulation des niveaux de vigilance. Rouen : cours donné à la faculté de psychologie aux élèves de licence de psychologie, 1999, 45 p. manuscrites.