SUJETS D'EXAMENS MAITRISE 2004 (Juin + septembre)

Bibliothèque Angellier

Deuxième session
0241003TI Séminaire I
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004

Documents autorisés : Non Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice

commentaire de texte

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Page l/2


Power and Love in Dombey and Son

COMMENTAIRE (Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Chapter 43):

They worked on hour after hour, unconscious of the forlom aspect they bore in the landscape, not thinking of the justice or injustice oft heir lot. Even in such a position as theirs it was possible to exist in a dream. ln the aftemoon the rain came on again, and Marian said that they need not work any more. But if they did not work they would not be paid; so they worked on. It was so high a situation, this field, that the rain had no occasion to fàll, but raced along horizontally upon the yelIing wind, sticking into them like glass splinrers, till they were wet through. Tess had not known till now what was really meant by that. There are degrees of dampness, and a very little is called being wet through in common talk. But to stand working slowly in a field, and feel the creep of rainwater, first in legs and shoulders, then on hips and head, then at back, front, and sides, and yet to work on till the leaden light diminishes and marks that the sun is down, demands a distinct modicum ofstoicism, even of valour.
Yet they did not feel the wetness so much as might be supposed. They were both young, and they were talking of the time when they lived and loved together at Talbothays Dairy,that happy green tract of land where summer bad been libera1 in her gifts; in substance to all, emotionally to these. Tess would fain not have conversed with Marian of the man who was legally, if only nominally, her husband; but the irresistible fascination of the subject betrayed her into reciprocating Marian's remarks. And thus, as has been said, though the damp curtains of their bonnets flapped smartly into their faces, and their wrappers c1ung about them to wearisomeness, they lived all this afternoon in memories of green sunny romantic Talbothays.
"You can see a gleam of a hill within a few miles o' Froom Valley from here when 'tis fine," said Marian.
"Ah - can you?" said Tess, awake to the new value of this locality.
So the two forces were at work here as.everywhere, the inherent will to enjoy, and the circumstantial will against enjoyment. Marian's will had a method of assisting itself by taking from her pocket as the afternoon wore on a pint bottle corked with white rag, from which she invited Tess to drink. Tess's unassisted power of dreaming, however, being enough for her sublimation at present, she declined except the merest sip, and then Marian took a pull herself from the spirits. ''I've got used to it," she said, "and can't leave it off now. 'Tis my only comfort. . . . You see I lost him: you didn't and you can do without it perhaps."
Tess thought her loss as great as Marian's, but upheld by the dignity of being Angers wife in the letter at least, she accepted Marian's differentiation.
Amid this scene Tess slaved in the morning frosts and in the afternoon rains. When it was not swede-grubbing it was swede-trimming, in which process they sliced off the earth and fibres with a bill-hook before storing the roots for future use. At this occupation they could shelter themselves by a thatched hurdle if it rained; but if it was frosty even their thick leather gloves could not prevent the frozen masses they handled from biting their fingers. Still Tess hoped. She had a conviction that sooner or later the magnanimity which she persisted in reckoning as a chief ingredient of Clare's character would lead him to rejoin her.

Deuxième session
Rattachement: 020842C UE2 Séminaire 2
3 h 00 Type exercice : commentaire de texte ou essai
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004

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Traitez, au choix, l'un des deux sujets suivants.

1 Dissertation:

Freedom of the press and democracy in Britain.

2 Commentaire:

Press ganged

Blair's tragedy is that, in the end, it is Murdoch, Rothermere and Black who write British history, not he.

Who runs the country? The rightwing press is now overreaching itself beyond anything seen in recent tÏmes. Its preposterous presumption might be funny if it weren't so damaging. The raucous bullying of the rightwing press barons for a referendum on an as yet unformulated new EU constitution is a flagrant challenge to the democratic authority of the government.

Yesterday the Daily Mail, with grotesque portentousness, announced "in an exercise unprecedented in newspaper history", June 12 will be "the day the Daily Mail will be conducting. its historie national referendum on the EU constitution, a device that will sweep away 1,000 years of history." This crude usurpation will create "thousands and thousands of polling stations," with votes "scrutinised over the following weekend," to stop the EU taking as yet unspecified, "sweeping powers over huge swaths of national life". The Electoral Reform Society, scrutineer for aIl authentic ballots, refused to have anything to do with it: "I1's just petition gathering," it says. But so what? The demagogues will get whatever whopping majority they want, never mind scrutiny.

Over at the Telegraph, Conrad Black took to print himself to demand a referendum-almost unknown behaviour for a proprietor. The Telegraph recently made a hefty donation to the Conservative party-also a curiosity for a newspaper. The Murdoch press is shoulder to shoulder: the Sun runs a telephone poIl to Save our Country against "the biggest betrayal in our history" while the Times obeys its owner with a little more fmesse, liking to flirt with Blair, but "democracy is at stake" it warns. A plaintive Jack Straw bleated: "the British public deserves a higher level of debate than this." Indeed-but when did his government try to do anything about it? (Instead they are trying to appease Murdoch by giving him Channel 5 in the current broadcasting bill).

All this is still a non-issue with the public. [...] What the europhobic press wants is a referendum so it can fight for a "no" vote which could lead to Britain's eventual exit, as it always wanted: it may never happen, but now it sees a shimmer on the horizon.
The profoundly dysfunctional British press, over 75% controlled by three rightwing men, bas the bit between its teeth. setting the agenda for the nation's political discourse. The nuanced, conditional support of Labour' s critical friends-the Guardian. FT and Independent-is no counterweight, with the Mirror wildly erratic. Without a plausible party of their own (canny bullies never champion a loser like Duncan Smith) Tory proprietors have become a surrogate party. They cannot win an election, but they can demolish all trust and hope in Labour. They can lie, destroy and spread unrelenting mendacity, meaning fewer people vote and all mistrust politics. [...]

Last night Sir John Egan, the CBI's president, delivered the CBI's annual roasting of the chancellor to a room full of penguin suits at the Grosvenor House botel. Egan's speech hammered home the current Tory press theme--"the snail's pace delivery of public sector reforms". He dished up the usual factoids: public spending rose by 7% last year but public sector output increased by only 2%. That, alas, is what the public thinks, because that is almost all the public ever reads. Tales of failure, NHS horrors, transport fiascos, crime terror, so the bad anecdote has it over the facts every time.

So, for the record, here are the current facts. Crime has plummeted since 1997 and the chances of being victim are the lowest for 20 years. Violent crime is down 26%, burglary down 39%, all crime down 27%. But try telling people and they think you have taken leave of your senses. Asylum may hit the front of the tabloids every day, but the number of new asylum claimants has dropped from 9,000 last October to 5,000 a month now, and still falls. Good news in the NHS: only 60% of suspected cancer cases reached a specialist within two weeks in 1997, now it' s 98%. All waiting times are falling fast, with 300,000 more operations a year and 1,500 more beds and 10,000 more doctors. ln education results are rising steeply at every age, present funding error notwithstanding. Nearly a million fewer children are poor. All this is with interest rates the lowest in 50 years, the lowest unemployment in 28 years and the lowest inflation in the EU.

It is the government's fault that an optimistic sense of improvement is not branded on the nation's psyche. Instead of trumpeting success, ministers attack public services, belabouring those toiling to deliver ever tougher targets. All people hear is a Blairite admonition, so naturally they think everything is failing. Why does the government do it? The Audit Commission report today shows how trust is undennined and people believe what they read not what they experience. Terrorised by the daily onslaught of the Tory press, Labour enters every argument on the back foot, staving off accusations of insufficient "reform", or money wasted on wages, (what else do you spend it on, but keeping and hiring staff?) New Labour was born cowering and it has never found its feet. Tony Blair is the master now - but he never believes it unless the Tory press tells him so. That is why he dares go to war with the people against him, so long as Murdoch, Rothermere and Black are with him. But he dare not proclaim that public services work and will work ever better given time, money and encouragement, without threatening to semi-privatise and out-source. He seeks vainly to please enemies, instead of turning to natural friends, losing the credit for what has been done well.

The deformity of the British press bas done its worst damage this week: Blair's capitulation over the euro is their triumph. They have dictated British policy against the will of a prime minister who never dared face them down. This govemment's tragedy is not that it has done badly: steady improvement is encouraging. The tragedy is that it bas been so much less boldly progressive than it might have been, through lack of nerve. Blair' s tragedy is that in the end, Murdoch, Rothermere and Black have written a key piece of British history, not he - they have kept us out of the euro, and they will try to take us out of Europe. It is late to turn brave, but never too late.

Polly Toynbee, The Guardian (Wednesday May 21,2003).

Deuxième session: Période d'examen de Septembre 2004 UFR ANGELLIER LG, LITT, CIVIL PAYS ANGL
Rattachement : 020843C UE3 Séminaire 3
3 h 00 Type exercice , commentaire de texte
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Comment on the following speech given in London by the then Conservative Party leader, Stanley Baldwin, on 6 May 1924, considering the way the image of England (or Britain) has developed over the 19th and 20th centuries as a consequence of Britain's changing position in the world:

'The Sounds of England'

To me, England is the country, and the country is England. And when I ask myself what I mean by England, when I think of England when I am abroad, England comes to me through my various senses - through the ear, through the eye, and through certain imperishable scents. I will tell you what they are, and there may be those among you who feel as I do.
The sounds of England, the tinkle of the hammer on the anvil in the country smithy, the corncrake on a dewy moming, the sound of the scythe against the whetstone, and the sight of a plough team coming over the brow of a hill, the sight that has been seen in England since England was a land, and may be seen in England long after the Empire has perished and every works in England has ceased to function, for centuries the one eternal sight of England. The wild anemones in the woods in April, the last load at night of hay being drawn down a lane as the twilight comes on, when you can scarcely distinguish the figures of the horses as they take it home to the farm, and above all, most subtle, most penetrating and most moving, the smell of wood smoke coming up in the autumn evening, or the smell of the scutch tires: that wood smoke that our ancestors, tens of thousands of years ago, must have caught on the air when they were coming home with the results of the day's forage, when they were still nomads, and when they were still roaming the forests and the plains of the continent of Europe. These things strike down into the very depths of our nature, and touch chords that go back to the beginning of time and the human race, but they are chords that with every year of our life sound a deeper note in our innermost being.
These are the things that make England, and l grieve for it that they are not the childish inheritance of the majority of the people today in our country. They ought to be the inheritance of every child born into this country, but nothing can be more touching than to see how the working man and woman after generations in the towns will have their tiny bit of
garden if they can, will go to gardens if they can, to look at something they have never seen as children, but which their ancestors knew and loved. The love of these things is innate and inherent in our people. It makes for that love of home, one of the strongest features of our race, and it is that that makes our race seek its new home in the Dominions overseas, where they have room to see things like this that they can no more see at home. It is that power of making homes, aImost peculiar to our people, and it is one of the sources of their greatness. They go overseas, and they take with them what they learned at home: love of justice, love of truth, and the broad humanity that are so characteristic of English people. It may weIl be that these traits on which we pride ourselves, which we hope to show and try to show in our own lives, may survive - survive among our people so long as they are a people - and l hope and believe this, that just as today more than fifteen centuries since the last of those great Roman legionaries left England, we still speak of the Roman strength, and the Roman work, and the Roman character, so perhaps in the ten thousandth century, long after the Empires of fuis world as we know them have fallen and others have risen and fallen, and risen and fallen again, the men who are then on this earth may yet speak ofthose characteristics which we prize as the characteristics of the English, and that long after, maybe, the name of the country has passed away, wherever men are honourable and upright and persevering, lovers of home, of their brethren, of justice and of humanity, the men in the world of that day may say, 'We have among us the gifts of that great British race.'

Deuxième session : Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
Rattachement: 020844C UE4 Séminaire 4

Documents autorisés : Non Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice: commentaire de texte

Liste des documents à remettre aux candidats au moment de la diffusion du sujet:


Veuillez faire un commentaire composé de l'extrait suivant de« Pictures» de Katherine Mansfield :

There was only a little round window at the Bitter Orange Company. No waiting-room - nobody at all except a girl, who came to the window when Miss Moss knocked, and said: 'Well?'
'Can I see the producer, please?' said Miss Moss pleasantly. The girl leaned on the window-bar, half shut her eyes and seemed to go to sleep for a moment. Miss Moss smiled at her. The girl not only frowned; she seemed to smell something vaguely unpleasant; she sniffed. Suddenly she moved away, came back with a paper and thrust it at Miss Moss.
'Pill up the form !' said she. And.banged the window down.
'Can you aviate - high-dive - drive a car - buck-jump - shoot?' read Miss Moss. She walked along the street asking herself those questions. There was a high, cold wind blowing; it tugged at her, slapped her face, jeered; it knew she could not answer them. ln the Square Gardens she found a lime wire basket to drop the form into. And then she sat down on one of the benches to powder her nose. But the person in the pocket-mirror made a hideous face at her, and that was too much for Miss Moss; she had a good cry. It cheered her wonderfully.
'Weil, that's over,' she sighed. 'It's one comfort to be off my feet. And my nose will soon get cool in the air... . It's very nice in here: Look at the sparrows. Cheep. Cheep. How close they come. I expect somebody feeds them. No, l've nothing for you, you cheeky lime things. . . .' She looked away from them. What was the big building
opposite - the Café de Madrid? My goodness, what a smack that lime child came down ! Poor little mite ! Never mind - up again. . . . By eight o'clock tonight ... Café de Madrid. ' I could just go in and sit there and have a coffee, that's all,' thought Miss Moss. 'It's such a place for artists too. I might just have a stroke of luck. . . . A dark handsome gentleman in a fur coat comes in with a friend, and sits at my table, perhaps. "No, old chap, l've searched London for a contralto and I can't find a soul. You see, the music is difficult; have a look at it.''' And Miss Moss heard herself saying: 'Excuse me, I happen to be a contralto, and I have sung that part many times.' ... 'Extraordinary ! "Come back to my studio and I'll try your voice now." ... Ten pounds a week. ... Why should I feel nervous? It's not nervousness. Why shouldn't I go to the Café de Madrid? l'm a respectable woman - l'm a contralto singer. And l'm only trembling because l've had nothing to eat today. ... "A nice little piece of evidence, my lady." . . . Very well, Mrs. Pine. Café de Madrid. They have concerts there in the evenings. . . . "Why don't they begin?" The contralto has not arrived "Excuse me, I happen to be a contralto; I have sung that music many times." '
It was almost dark in the café. Men, palms, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in aprons, Miss Moss walked through them all. Hardly had she sat down when a very stout gentleman wearing a very small hat that floated on the top of his head like a little yacht flopped into the chair opposite hers.
'Good evening !' said he.
Miss Moss said, in her cheerful way: 'Good evening !'
'Fine evening,' said the stout gentleman.
'Y es, very fine. Quite a treat, isn't it?' said she.
He crooked a sausage linger at the waiter - 'Bring me a large whisky' - and turned to Miss Moss. 'What's yours?'
'Well, I think l'Il take a brandy if it's all the same.' ,
Five minutes later the stout gentleman leaned across the table and blew a puff of cigar smoke full in her face.
'That's a tempting bit o' ribbon !' said he.
Miss Moss blushed until a pulse at the top of her head that she never had felt before pounded away.
'I always was one for pink,' said she.
The stout gentleman considered her, drumming with her fingers on the table.
'I like 'em fIrm and well covered,' said he.
Miss Moss, to her surprise, gave a loud snigger.
Five minutes later the stout gentleman heaved himself up. 'Well, am I goin' your way, or are you comin' mine?' he asked.
'I'll come with you, if it's all the same,' said Miss Moss. And she sailed after the little yacht out of the café.

Deuxième session
0241015Tl Séminaire 1
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004

Documents autorisés : Non
Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : version et/ou thème

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Page 1/4.

Traduisez chacun des deux textes ci-dessous sur une copie distincte.

Europe: Deals Are Back ln Season
The strong euro and healthy profits have CEOs in a mood to go shopping

After three years of pruning costs, reducing debt, and cleaning up their balance sheets, CEOs across Europe are ready to start cutting deals again. Take Henri Lachmann, chief executive of French electrical equipment maker Schneider Electric. He plans to boost sales by 8% to 10% this year, to $12 billion, through a "rigorous and targeted acquisition strategy" in China, Brazil, India, and Europe. While Lachmann won't name specific targets, Schneider Electric's solid 2003 earnings and $6.3 billion in cash and capital give it ample resources for a shopping spree.

A host of factors are turning the gears of the dealmaking machine. Among them: Interest rates are low, equity prices are rebounding, and the stronger euro makes non-euro-zone investments more attractive. Low rates have allowed companies to refinance debt and free up capital to fund expansion. The turnaround in regional bourses, many of which are back to levels not seen since 1999, encourages dealmaking because acquirers are better able to use their stock as an acquisition currency. Targets, meanwhile, are more inclined to sell because they get more money. "Better market conditions mean the deals companies wanted to do but couldn't for three years can now get done, says Ed Mountfield, head of research at Zephyr, an M&A* database in Manchester, England.

INVESTOR SKEPTICISM. Of course, no one thinks Europe is about to do a rerun of the bigger-is-better days of the late 1990s. Dealmakers are more sober. And there's still little shareholder appetite for large-scale, transforming acquisitions such as French utility Vivendi's ill-fated takeover of Canadian conglomerate Seagram and French television company Canal+ in 2000. Only last month, investor skepticism killed any plans British mobile-phone giant Vodafone Group PLC might have had to stick it out in a bidding war for AT&T Wireless Services Inc. in the U.S. And when London bank Lloyds TSB Group PLC hinted on Mar. 8 that it might use its spare capital to make acquisitions rather than buy back shares, its stock temporarily dipped.

By David Fairlamb in Frankfurt, with Carol Matlack in Paris.

Business Week, 22 March 2004.

Le portable s'envole

Nos ordinateurs de bureau sont-ils promis sans rémission au grand cimetière technologique? C'est la question qu'on est en droit de se poser à l'examen des évolutions actuelles du marché des ordinateurs. Certes, ce n'est pas demain la veille que, dans les entreprises gérant des parcs importants, on renoncera aux machines clouées aux bureaux. Mais certains indices ne trompent pas. Selon une étude de l'institut GfK, les Français vont augmenter de 30 % en 2004 leurs achats d'ordinateurs portables. C'est une croissance énorme, car, simultanément, les ventes d'ordinateurs de bureau seront, au mieux, en stagnation. Le marché demeure dynamique, puisque nos concitoyens devraient acquérir 5,6 millions d'ordinateurs cette année, soit 10 % de plus qu'en 2003. Les raisons de cette évolution sont à chercher dans une série de facteurs, mais le prix joue un rôle moteur: il est désormais possible d'acheter des ordinateurs portables de bonne qualité, avec un excellent écran, un « combo » lecteur de DVD et graveur de CD, une connectique diversifiée, un processeur rapide, un disque dur auquel on n'osait même pas rêver voilà quelques années, pour moins de 1 000 euros. La mobilité et la « portabilité » croissante des outils, les connexions sans fil qui se répandent, le gain de place, tout joue en faveur des portables. Le consommateur avisé a compris que sa machine dernier cri ne sera plus au top de la technologie au bout de deux ans, mais également qu'il va pouvoir réutiliser ses logiciels (bureautique, imagerie, son, etc.) sur la machine de prochaine génération qu'il s'offrira ensuite.

Jean Guisnel

Le Point 26/02/04

Deuxième session
Rattachement: 020641C UEl Séminaire 1
Documents autorisés : Non
Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : dissertation ou commentaire de texte
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
Liste des documents à remettre aux candidats au moment de la diffusion du sujet:
Page 1/-1.

Commentaire composé.

Blue does not mince words, however. He knows that more than anything else he would like to learn the real story. But at this early stage he also knows that patience is called for. Bit by bit, therefore, he begins to dig in, and with each day that passes he finds himself a little more comfortable with his situation, a little more resigned to the fact that he is in for the long haul. Unfortunately, thoughts of the future Mrs Blue occasionally disturb his growing peace of mind. Blue misses her more than ever, but he also senses somehow that things will never be the same again. Where this feeling comes from he cannot tell. But while he feels reasonably content whenever he confines his thoughts to Black, to his room, to the case he is working on, whenever the future Mrs Blue enters his consciousness, he is seized by a kind of panic. All of a sudden, his calm turns to anguish, and he feels as though he is falling into Bome dark, cave-like place, with no hope of finding a way out. Nearly every day he has been tempted to pick up the phone and call her, thinking that perhaps a moment of real contact would break the spell. But the days pass, and still he doesn't call. This, too, is troubling to him, for he cannot remember a time in his life when he has been so reluctant to do a thing he so clearly wants to do. I'm changing, he says to himself. Little by little, I'm no longer the same. This interpretation reassures him somewhat, at least for a while, but in the end it only leaves him feeling stranger than before. The days pass, and it becomes difficult for him not to keep seeing pictures of the future Mrs Blue in his head, especially at night, and there in the darkness of his room, lying on his back with his eyes open, he reconstructs her body piece by piece, beginning with her feet and ankles, working his way up her legs and along her thighs, climbing from her belly toward her breasts, and then, roaming happily among the sorftness, dipping down to her buttocks and then up again along her back, at last finding her neck and curling forward to her round and smiling face. What is she doing now ? He sometimes asks himself. And what does she think of all this ? But he can never come up with a satisfactory answer. If he is able to invent a multitude of stones to fit the facts concerning Black, with the future Mrs Blue all is silence, confusion, and emptiness.


Dissertation, Toni Morrison

Essay topic:
Mysteries in Toni Morrison's Paradise.



Deuxième session : Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
0241010Tl Séminaire 2
Documents autorisés : Non
Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : dissertation ou commentaire de texte
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Page 1 /.2


Harmony in Willa Cather's 0 Pioneers!


Write a commentary on the following passage from Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay « Self-Reliance» (1841):

Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. Accept the place the divine Providence has found for you; the society of your contemporaries, the connexion of events. Great men have aIways done so and confided themselves childIike to the genius of their age, betraying their perception that the absolutely trustworthy was seated at their heart, working
through their hands, predominating in aIl their being. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny; and not minors and invalids in a protected corner, nor cowards fleeing before a revolution,but guides, redeemers, and benefactors, obeying the Almighty effort, and advancing on Chaos and the Dark.
What pretty oracles nature yields us on this text in the face and behavior of children, babes and even brutes. That divided and rebel mind, that distrust of a sentiment because our arithmetic has computed the strength and means opposedto our purpose, these have not. Their mind being whole, their eye is as yet unconquered, and when we look in their faces, we are disconcerted. Infancy conforms to nobody: aIl conform to it, so that one babe commonly makes four or five out of the adults who prattle and play to it. So God has armed youth and puberty and manhood no less with its own piquancy and charm, and made it enviable and gracious and its claims not to be put by, if it will stand by itself. Do not think the youth has no force because he cannot speak to you and me. Hark! in the next room his voice is sufficiently clear and emphatic. It seems he knows how to speak to his contemporaries. Bashful or bold, then, he will know how to make us seniors very unnecessary.
The nonchalance of boys who are sure of a dinner, and would disdain as much as a lord to do or say aught to conciliate one, is the healthy attitude of human nature. A boy is in the parlour what the pit is in the playhouse; independent, irresponsible, looking out from his corner on such people and facts as pass by, he tries and sentences them on their merits, in the swift summary way of boys, as good, bad, interesting, silly, eloquent, troublesome. He cumbers himself never about consequences, about interests: he gives an independent, genuine verdict. You must court him: he does not court you. But the man is, as it were, clapped into jail by his consciousness. As soon as he has once acted or spoken with eclat, he is a
committed person, watched by the sympathy or the hatred of hundreds whose affections must now enter into his account. There is no Lethe for this. Ah, that he could pass again into his neutrality! Who can thus avoid ail pledges, and having observed, observe again from the same unaffected, unbiassed, unbribable, unaffrighted innocence, must always be formidable. He would utter opinions on all passing affairs, which being seen to be not private but necessary,
would sink like darts into the ear of men, and put them in fear.

Deuxième session : Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
020643C UE3 Séminaire 3
Type exercice : dissertation ou commentaire de texte
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Page 1/2

Texte: Début de "The Fall of the House of Usher" Edgar Allan Poe.

Question sur le texte:

Study the way in which the narrator refers to what lies before him. "Scene", "landscape", "details of the picture". .. Does he appeal to perception, visual , auditory or otherwise , and to what effect ?

The narrator's references to the process of his own mental activity are problematic; how does he refer to his own mental attitudes? Do they occur in response to something and, if so, what are they responses to ?

Does the narrator express himself in personal terms? Though he says he has been passing "alone" through that dreary tract of country, would you say he relate an experience he had on his own ?

In the last part of the text, the narrator states that he "reflected" about the possibility of rearranging the details of the scene; he consequently reins his horse to the brink of the tarn. How is this tarn referred to ? To what effect? What curious relationship does it seem to bear to the narrator' s "reflection" ?


The Fall of the House of Usher

Son cœur est un luth suspendu; Sitôt qu'on le touche il résonne. .
De Béranger

During the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autwnn of the year, when the clouds hung..oppres-sively low in the heavens, 1 had been PaSsing alone, on horse-back, through a singularly dreary tract of country; and at length found myself, as the shades of the evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher. I know not how it was -but, with the fust glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit. I say insufferable; for the feeling was unrelieved by any of that half-pleasurable, because poetie, sentiment, with which the mind usually receives even the stemest natural images of the desolate or terrible looked upon the scene before me -upon the mere house and the simple landscape features of the domain-upon the bleak walls-upon the vacant eye-like windows-upon a few rank sedges-and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees-with an utter depression of soul which 1 can compare to no earthly sensation more properly than to the after-dream of the reveller upon opium-the bitter lapse into everyday !ife-the hideous dropping off of the veil. There was an iciness, a sinking, a sickening of the heart-an unredeemed dreariness of thought which no goading of the imag:ination could torture into aught of the sublime. What was it-I paused to think-what was it that so unnerved me in the contemplation of the House of Usher? It was a mystery all insoluble; nor could I grapple with the shadowy fancies that crowded upon me as I pondered. I was forced to falI back upon the unsatisfactory conclusion, that while, beyond doubt, there are combinations of very simple natural objects which have the power of thus affeèting us, still the analysis of this power lies among considerations beyond our depth. It was possible, I reflected, that a mere different arrangement of the particulars of the scene, of the details of the picture, would be sufficient to modify, or perhaps to an-nihilate its capacity for sorrowful impression; and, acting upon this idea, I reined my horse to the precipitous brink of
a black and lurid tarn that lay in unruffled lustre by the dwelling, and gazed down-but with a shudder even more thrilling than before-upon the remodelled and inverted images of the gray sedge, and the ghasdy tree-stems, and the vacant
and eye-like window.

020644C UE4 Séminaire 4
Deuxième session Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : dissertation ou commentaire de texte
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Page 1/1.



"Coincidence in Libra"

Comment upon the following passage

Things then did not delay in turning curious. If one object behind her discovery of what she was to label the Tristero system or often only the Tristero (as if it might be something's secret title) were to bring to an end her encapsulation in her tower, then that night's infidelity with Metzger would logically be the starting point for it; logically. That's what would come to haunt her most, perhaps: the way it fitted, logically, together. As if (as she'd guessed that first minute in San Narciso) there were revelations in progress ail around her. Much of the revelation was to corne through the stamp collection Pierce had left, his substitute often for her _ thousands of little coloured windows into deep vistas of space and time : savannahs teeming with elands and gazelles, galleons sailing west into the void, Hitler heads, sunsets, cedars of Lebanon, allegorical faces that never were, he could spend hours peering into each one, ignoring her. She had never seen the fascination. The thought that now it would all have to be inventoried and appraised was only another headache. No suspicion at all that it might have something to tell her. Yet if she hadn't been set up or sensitized, first by her peculiar seduction, then by the other, almost offhand things, what after all could the mute stamps have told her, remaining as they would've only ex-rivals, cheated as she by death, about to be broken up into lots, on route to any number of new masters?
It got seriously under way, this sensitizing, either with the letter from Mucho or the evening she and metger drifted into a strange bar known as The Scope. Looking back she forgot which had corne first. The letter itself had nothing much to say, had corne in response to one of her dutiful, more or less rambling, twice-a-week notes to him, in which she was not confessing to her scene with Metzger because Mucha, she felt, somehow, would know. (...)
It may have been an intuition that the letter would be newless inside that made Oedipa look more closely at its outside, when it arrived. At first she didn't see. It was an ordinary Muchaesque envelope, swiped from the station, ordinary airmail stamp, to the left of the cancellation a blurb put on by the govemment, REPORT ALL OBSCENE MAIL TO YOUR POTSMASTER.

Thomas Pynchon, The Crying of Lot 49.


Deuxième session : Période d'examen de
020341C UEI Séminaire 1
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Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : commentaire de texte ou dissertation

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Old ways are going as rural
family life fades


Planners and politicians will have to take account of changing needs in housing, family law, pensions, writes Paul Cullen

The 1996 census highlights the speed of change in modem Irish society, as traditional family structures break up and people become ever more mobile.

Services and infrastructure in Dublin and the surrounding counties are likely to come under considerable pressure as a
result of the changing trends revealed in the census, which was published yesterday. The results have major implications for planners, policymakers and politicians.

But they will also be studied with interest by experts in areas such as housing, family law and pensions. A doubling in the figure for broken marriages has already prompted one Dublin counselling centre to call for more funding to prevent marriage breakdown. But the census figures show that the entire family law area will need massive investment.

In all, almost 88,000 Irish people who were married are living separately, including divorcees. This figure is still small, though, compared to the 1,350,000 people who are married.

The Ireland depicted in the 1996 census is more crowded than at any time this century, particularly in Leinster. Nonetheless, Irish children are becoming something of an endangered species, as the end of the baby boom kicks in and the size of the average Irish family drops to a modest 1.8 children.

More and more people are living alone, in urban areas, and in the east of the country. More than 100,000 of those living on their own are pensioners, and this fact alone poses a considerable challenge to the social services.

ln addition, however, the overall population is starting to age - by an average of almost three years since the last census - and the western and rural counties are particularly badly affected. In compensation, perhaps, we can hope that an older population will eventually mean a drop in crime.

Politicians will study the population trends for any evidence that a redrawing of constituencies is needed. On the basis of the census figures, Cork North-West arid Galway East are best represented, while Dublin West has the highest population per Dail member. The increase of 100,000 in the overall population since the last census is higher than expected, according to the Central Statistics Office. Numbers could grow by 10 per cent in the next 10 years,
the CSO forecasts, but a population "explosion" is unlikely.

While trends in the birth rate are easy to chart, migration patterns tend to be much harder to predict The census shows that the heavy emigration of the late 1980s bas been reversed, to the extent that more than 40,000 people came to Ireland in the 12 months before the census was enumerated. Almost half came from Britain.

No questions on religion were asked in the present census; the CSO says these are traditionally asked every 10 years. The results from questions relating to education, employment and the Irish language will be released in the coming months.

The Irish Times Saturday, July 26, 1997

020342C UE2 Séminaire 2
Durée: 3 h 00 Type exercice : commentaire de texte
Période d'examen de Septembre

Traiter l'un des deux sujets suivants au choix

1) Dissertation:

Would you agree with the view that the de Valera era rooted Ireland in tradition?

2) Commentaire:

Fintan O'Toole, The Lie of the Land (Irish Identities), Dublin, New Island Books, 1998.

ln 1996, the Republic of Ireland produced more wealth per head of population than the United Kingdom. As recently as the early 1970s, after the last great boom time for the Irish economy, gross domestic product (GDP) per head of population in the Republic was half that of the UK. But if the EU average for GDP per head was 100, for 1996 the figures were 100.7 for Ireland and 98.9 for the UK. And this gap is expected to widen so that in 1998 it will be 106.3 for Ireland and 99.6 for the UK.
Samuel Beckett's jokey reply to the question 'Vous êtes Anglais, Monsieur Beckett?' ('You are English, Mr Beckett?') -'Au contraire' - no longer works. What Newsweek magazine described in December 1996 as the 'Emerald Tiger' economy was not so much on the prowl as on the razzle-dazzle. For those who could afford the entrance fee, Ireland had entered the world's fair of global consumerism. It belonged, with Britain and the rest of western Europe, in the developed world.
Normally, those who preside over such good times could expect to bask in the glow of national gratitude. Instead, the
opposite has been the case. As wealth grew, so did an extraordinary popular scepticism about leaders of all sorts, to such an extent that the whole idea of authority - political, moral, religious - became utterly problematic. The authority of the State itself had been eroded, at least partly because the public no longer seemed to associate good rimes with national politics at all. Ministers may have gotten to spend the billions of pounds flowing in from the EU's regional and social funds, but the public knew that jt had people outside the State - mostly German taxpayers - to thank for them. Ministers may have gotten to announce huge industrial investments like IBM's 3,OOO-job project for Dublin or Intel's $1.5 billion investment in Leixlip, but the public knew that the real decisions had been taken on the far side of the Atlantic.
This is the paradox of the Republic of Ireland in the aftermath of the British Empire - its national independence is underwritten by transnational corporations and by a supra-national European Union. Its sovereignty is a power that can be exercised mostly by giving it up. Its separation three quarters of a century ago from one political and economic union, the United Kingdom, is justified by its rnembership of a bigger political and economic union, the EU. Its cultural distinctiveness lies nat in any fixed unherited tradition but in the particular way that it reacts to an overload of global stimuli, taking possession of Anglo-American norms, putting its own stamp on them and exporting them back to England, America and the rest of the world. .
The purpose of these essays is to suggest three things about globalisation. One is that that process is having a profound effect on Irish culture. A second is that justified complaints about American cultural imperialism can sometimes miss the point that American mass culture may well contain buried elements of other cultures. This is particularly so in the case of Ireland, and it is one of the reasons why multinational pop culture can be used creatively, rather than merely consumed, by Irish people. The third is that globalisation is not a one-way process. It affects different cultures in different ways, and each culture also makes its own contribution to the shape of global. forces. Because it has been in a real sense a global society long before the term 'globalisation' was ever heard, this is especially true of Ireland. It has buried memories, forgotten histories, that offer it some useful precedents for engaging with, rather than being swamped by, the new realities. By remembering and re-imagining them, it can, perhaps, learn how to surf the global waves without drowning in a flood tide of blandness and amnesia.
The essays in this book are an attempt to explore some of the ways in which the disappearance of a fixed Irish identity and the emergence of a set of provisional, contingent identities has manifested itself in Irish life in the 1990s. They deal with politics, history, landscape, religion and culture. But they do not pretend to deal with any of these areas comprehensively. Their aim is to be suggestive and exploratory rather than comprehensive or dogmatic. They were written, as Leopold Bloom's definition of nation is given, under pressure of events; and in full awareness that at any moment it will be necessary to add 'Or also. . .'

Deuxième session
Rattachement : 020343C UE3 Séminaire 3
Documents autorisés : Non
Durée: . 3 h 00 Type exercice: commentaire de texte ou dissertation
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004

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Page 1/-1.

Barbarie pleasure in The Poor Mouth (An Béal Bocht)

Deuxième session
0242027Tl Séminaire 4
3 h 00 Type exercice : commentaire de texte
Période d'examen de Septembre 2004
Liste des documents à remettre aux candidats au moment de la diffusion du sujet Page 1/3

Traitez au choix l'un des deux sujets suivants:

1. Essay:

Dissidence in early 20th century Irish writing : forms, strategies, targets, purposes.

2. Commentaire de « The Confessional» de Sean O'Faolain (A Purse of Coppers, 1937) :

The Confessional

ln the wide nave the wintry evening light was faint as gloom and in the shadows of the aisle it was like early night. There was no sound in the chapel but the wind blowing up from the river-valley, or an occasional tiny noise when a brass socket creaked under the great heat of a dying flame. To the three small boys crouched together in a bench in the farther aisle, holding each other's hands, listening timidly to the crying wind, staring wide-eyed at the candles, it seemed odd that in sucb a storm the bright flames never moved. [texte en entier disponible à la bibliothèque angellier]

0241020T1 Lectures en ling théo et computation
027144A UE4 Lectures en linguis 067243A
027143B UE3 Lectures en ling th
Deuxième session
Période d'examen de Septembre 20
UE3 Lectures en linguis
Documents autorisés : Non
Durée: 1 h 30 Type exercice : écrit
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I. SHORT ANSWER. The following questions refer to articles discussed in class. Your answers should be complete, but succinct: 75-100 words maximum, per question. (10 points)
1. ln her article on apposition, Doron claims that appositives represent a third type of
predication. Comment on the function of appositive predication.
2. Name and describe the two different types of constraints in Optimality Theory and
give an example of each.
3. ln her article on color terms, Forbes argues that both brun and marron are basic color terms in French; however, she notes that marron does not have the same distributional potential as other basic terms. Explain how marron differs from other basic terms with respect to its distributional potential.
4. Explain the role (or lack thereof) of negative evidence in language learning as discussed by Pinker.
5. Explain the concepts of validity and reliability with respect to experimental design.

II . ARTICLE. Read the article "Predictors of relative clause production" and answer the following questions. (10 points)
1. What is the goal of this study?
2. Explain the findings of Schachter's (1974) study on relative clause production.
3. Explain the pilot study used in this experiment. What did the pilot study show?
4. Why did the researcher choose a multiple regression analysis to analyze the results?
5. What are the independent variables and their levels?
6. What is the dependent variable and what are its levels?
7. Comment on Table 3.
8. What is the conclusion of this study?

cf. article: David L. Chang, "Predictors of relative clause production" (University of Southern California)